Cannabis and Driving
Cannabis and Driving
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1 Highway Traffic Act, 1991, R.S.O. 1991. C. H8.

2 Bill C-46, An Act to amend the Criminal Code (offences relating to conveyances) and to make consequential amendments to other Acts, 1st Sess, 42nd Leg, Canada, 2018.

3 Health Canada. About cannabis. Ottawa, ON: Health Canada; 2018 cited Sep 25 2018.

4 Canadian Pharmacists Association. Cannabis Monograph. Toronto, ON: Canadian Pharmacists Association; 2018.

5 Ramaekers JG, Berghaus G, van Laar M, Drummer OH. Dose related risk of motor vehicle crashes after cannabis use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2004;73:109-119.

6 Hartman RL, Huestis MA. Cannabis effects on driving skills. Clin Chem. 2013;59:478-92.

7 Broyd SJ,. Van Hell HH, Beale C, Solowij N. Acute and chronic effects of cannabinoids on human cognition—a systematic review. Biol Psychiatry. 2016; 79(7):557–567.

8 Karschner EL, Swortwood MJ, Hirvonen J, Goodwin RS, Bosker WM, Ramaekers JG et al. Extended plasma cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence and correlation with psychomotor performance. Drug Testing and Analysis.2016; 8(7): 682–9.

9 Rogeberg O, Elvic R. The effects of cannabis intoxication on motor vehicle collision revisited and re-vised. Addiction. 2016;111(8):134-1359.

10 Asbridge M, Mann R, Cusimano MD, Trayling C, Roerecke M, Tallon JM, et al. Cannabis and traffic collision risk: findings from a case-crossover study of injured drivers presenting to emergency departments. Int Public Health. 2014; 59(2):395-404.

11 Neavyn MJ, Blohm E, Babu KM. Medical Marijuana and Driving: A Review. Medical Toxicology. 2014;10:269-279.

12 Downey LA, King R, Papafotiou K, Ogden E, Boorman M, Stough C. The effects of cannabis and alcohol on simulated driving: Influences of dose and experience. Accid Anal Prev. 2013; 50: 879-886.

13 College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. Policy Statement #8-16: Marijuana for Medical Purposes. Toronto, ON: College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario; 2016 cited Sep 17 2018.

14 Canadian Medical Association. Determining Medical Fitness to Operate Motor Vehicles: CMA Driver’s Guide, 9th Ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Medical Association; 2017 cited Sep 17 2018.

15 Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences Drugs and Driving Committee. Report on Drug Screening Equipment – Oral Fluid. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Society of Forensic Science; 2018 cited Oct 23 2018.

16 Health Canada. Health Effects of Cannabis. Ottawa ON; 2017 Accessed 17 Sep 2018.

17 Leirer VO, Yesavage JA, Morow DG. Marijuana carry-over effects on aircraft pilot performance. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 1991; 62: 221–227.

18 College of Family Physicians of Canada. Authorizing Dried Cannabis for Chronic Pain or Anxiety: Preliminary Guidance from the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Mississauga, ON: College of Family Physicians of Canada; 2014 cited Sep 19 2018.

19 Kahan M, Srivastava A, Spithoff S, Bromley L. Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain. Canadian Family Physician. 2014;60:1083-1090.

20 Fischer B, Russell C, Sabioni P, van den Brink W, Le Foll B, Hall W, et al. Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines: A Comprehensive Update of Evidence and Recommendations. Public Health Policy. 2017;107(8):e1-e12.

Updated: May 27, 2019